Contribution to the UNESCO Global Education Monitoring Report 2020

Inclusive education: children with disabilities

This paper presents the case for inclusive education for children with disabilities as the entry point for policy development and implementation of inclusive education in the broad sense: inclusive, quality education for ALL children. The paper starts by providing a short historical perspective of the education of children with disabilities and continues with a description of the essential elements of an inclusive legislative framework, with a particular focus on General Comment no4 of Article 24 (CRPD). The benefits of inclusive education, as well as financing mechanisms, and required accountability measures for implementation, are also discussed. Then, the paper discusses the foundational basis of curriculum for inclusion, as well as issues related to a transformative teacher education practice. The final chapters describe what an inclusive school might look like, as well as the role of students, families and communities in creating an inclusive education system. It should be noted that this paper is substantiated with selective literature, with attention paid to equitable geographic coverage.

You can find this paper in our Resources section or in the GEM Report website.

GEM Report Background Papers

What an Inclusive Equitable, Quality Education Means to Us

Report of the International Disability Alliance

This global report on inclusive education presents the work and views of the International Disability Alliance (IDA) on how to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG4) – ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all – in compliance with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), especially respecting its Article 24 on the rights of all learners with disabilities.

DED Lda had the pleasure to contribute to the writing on the report as well as its translation to Portuguese.

The report can be found on our Resources section or on IDA's website, and is available in English, French, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili, Arabic and International Sign.

IDA Inclusive Education Report

The case for early identification and early intervention in assistive technology

Article written for the journal of Assistive Technology (commissioned by UNICEF and WHO)


This paper - The case for early identification and early intervention in assistive technology - starts by presenting the argument that inclusive education for learners with disabilities is often not possible without their access to fit-for-purpose assistive technology (AT), as the barriers to their education are often environmental. The paper will argue that, if assistive technology is an enabler for learning, then the processes by which children with disabilities are identified as users of assistive technology must take place as early as possible in the lifecycle. Mechanisms associated with Early Identification and Early Intervention (EI/EI) must be outfitted with all necessary resources for identifying and addressing the unique assistive technology needs of each individual child, but also have a prospective view of the use of the assistive technology in order to ensure school-age children start benefiting from assistive technology as early as possible. A further argument will be made that, when adequate identification of the need for assistive technology has not taken place early, education systems must be prepared to – in collaboration with other ministries or departments – identify, assess and provide the necessary assistive technology not only as it relates to education use, but to all-inclusive and holistic use. The argument will be made for adequately resourcing “support services for inclusion” and creating transdisciplinary teams of professionals that can effectively ensure equitable access and participation of all children with disabilities in inclusive education. Some examples of good practices will support the narrative, and the paper will close with recommendations for stakeholders involved in developing policies and practices for inclusive education.